Purpose of [^\x20-\x7E] in Regular Expressions

Purpose of [^\x20-\x7E] in Regular Expressions defines all characters that are not (^) in the range \x20-\x7E (hex 0x20 to 0x7E). According to http://www.asciitable.com/, those are characters from ‘space’ to ‘~’. Hence, given below Java code will work very efficiently:-

String updateMessage = message.replaceAll("[^\\x20-\\x7e]", "");

Happy Coding !!

How to access Tomcat Manager from Eclipse

It has been observed that Tomcat Manager is not accessible after starting the Tomcat Server from Eclipse. Even after doing changes in file – $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml changes are not getting reflected back.

Therefore, we need to configure Eclipse to take control over from Tomcat, we need to do double-click the Tomcat Server entry in Servers tab and then we will get the server configuration. At the left column, under Server Locations, select Use Tomcat installations (If it is grayed-out then delete the Server and add it again). This way Eclipse will take full control over Tomcat and we will be able to access the default Tomcat homepage with the Tomcat Manager when running from inside Eclipse.

Configuration to access Tomcat Manager from Eclipse
Configuration to access Tomcat Manager from Eclipse

Note: Above stated configuration is validated on Apache-Tomcat-8.0.33

How to enable Tomcat Manager

To access the Tomcat Manager page, we need to define users in file – $TOMCAT_HOME/conf/tomcat-users.xml. By default, there is NO user which means that no one can access the Tomcat Manager page.

To access the above mentioned page, we need to add a user(s) as the role “manager-gui”

	<role rolename="manager-gui"/>
	<user username="admin" password="admin" roles="manager-gui"/>

Once done then save the file and restart the Tomcat Server and we should able to access the default manager page (http://localhost:8080/manager) with user = “admin” and password = “admin”

Note: Above stated configuration is validated on Apache-Tomcat-8.0.33

Powermock : MockClassLoader Issue with Log4j

When running a PowerMock Test Log4j gives me the following (or something similar) error:-

log4j:ERROR A "org.apache.log4j.xml.DOMConfigurator" object is not assignable to a "org.apache.log4j.spi.Configurator" variable.
log4j:ERROR The class "org.apache.log4j.spi.Configurator" was loaded by
log4j:ERROR [org.powermock.core.classloader.MockClassLoader@14a55f2] whereas object of type
log4j:ERROR "org.apache.log4j.xml.DOMConfigurator" was loaded by [sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader@92e78c].
log4j:ERROR Could not instantiate configurator [org.apache.log4j.xml.DOMConfigurator].


Caused by: org.apache.commons.logging.LogConfigurationException:Invalid class loader hierarchy.  
You have more than one version of 'org.apache.commons.logging.Log' visible, which is not allowed.

There are a couple of different solutions to this:
# Upgrade to PowerMock 1.3+
# Make use of the @PowerMockIgnore annotation at the class-level of the test.
For example if using log4j, use `@PowerMockIgnore(“org.apache.log4j.*”)` if using commons logging, use `@PowerMockIgnore(“org.apache.commons.logging.*”)`.

Reference URL :-

(403) Forbidden Error Message

There could be a couple of reasons when we can see a (403) Forbidden error message in dynamic web-application. Details for the same could be found at given below URL :-

(1) https://mediatemple.net/community/products/dv/204644980/why-am-i-seeing-a-403-forbidden-error-message

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_403

However, today in our application we have faced the same scenario wherein we got (403) Forbidden error message while hitting the URL :


After initial investigation, it has been found that due to network/firewall patches, we have to give the full qualified URLs i.e.

Example: http://chauhan.techDomain.com:9081/servicesApplication/port/v1_2 

Enjoy Learning 🙂

Difference between JDK, JRE and JVM in Java

Java Development Kit (JDK): Java Development Kit is the core component of Java Environment and provides all the tools and binaries required to compile, debug and execute a Java Program. JDK is platform specific software and that’s why we have separate installers for Windows, Mac and Unix systems. We can say that JDK is superset of JRE since it contains JRE with Java compiler, debugger and core classes.

Java Virtual Machine(JVM): JVM is the heart of java programming language. When we run a program, JVM is responsible to converting Byte code to the machine specific code. JVM is also platform dependent and provides core java functions like memory management, garbage collection, security etc. JVM is customizable and we can use java options to customize it, for example allocating minimum and maximum memory to JVM. JVM is called virtual because it provides an interface that does not depend on the underlying operating system and machine hardware. This independence from hardware and operating system is what makes java program write-once run-anywhere.

Java Runtime Environment (JRE): JRE is the implementation of JVM, it provides platform to execute java programs. JRE consists of JVM and java binaries and other classes to execute any program successfully. JRE doesn’t contain any development tools like java compiler, debugger etc. If you want to execute any java program, you should have JRE installed but we don’t need JDK for running any java program.